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Underground waste development to ore ratio

  • What is the maximum stripping ratio of open pit Diamond

    Aug 29, 2016· The stripping ratio is chosen based on economics. A high grade orebody can support a high stripping ratio. A low grade ore body cannot support a high stripping ratio. The cost is

  • .pwc 2012 Americas School of Mines

    The report also states that 23,857 kt of ore (oxides/secondary sulfides) was placed on the leach stockpiles. This means the waste is 6409326,592 23,857 = 13,644 kt, about 21% of the material mined. So does this mean their strip ratio, waste/ore = 0.21/0.79 ~ 0.27 Not so fast.

  • Open Pit Mine - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    Jul 24, 2004· The small and large volume of broken ore from open pit mine benches is transported to the ore stock pile in a combination of trucks, loader, and dumpers. The size of the machines changes accordingly. Capacities range between 25 and 85 t (Figs. 12.39 and 12.40).Low-profile dumpers are used in underground mines with access by decline.

  • Mining - Underground mining Britannica

    Mining - Mining - Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the costs, which, for each ton of material mined, are much higher underground than on

  • 1.1 PHASES OF A MINING PROJECT - Home ELAW

    1.1.2 Development If the mineral ore exploration phase proves that usually filled with cemented aggregate and waste rock. Although underground mining is a less quantity of mineral ore (called the strip ratio) is usually greater than one, and can be much higher. For example, if

  • Legislation & policy: mine waste Planning MineralsUK

    The most important environmental effect is generally visual. This is particularly true in slate and china clay mining which had waste / ore ratios exceeding 10 / 1 at times. This has led to the development of major waste rock tips in North Wales, often in areas of high relief and scenic value, which causes problems of stability and visual amenity.

  • Ore Reserve Estimation Method

    Mar 24, 2017· Estimates of the tonnage and average grade of ore deposits (ore-reserve estimates) are made for various purposes. They may be made by examining engineers as a basis for placing a value on a mining property in connection with reports on behalf of owners or vendors, on the one hand, or for prospective purchasers or lessees, on the other.

  • Block caving: A new mining method arises Geoengineer

    Jul 25, 2018· Another benefit of block caving is the large reduction in surface waste disposal needs. As open pits get deeper, their ratios of waste rock to ore often get higher and the waste must be placed in surface storage areas. The amount of waste rock generated from underground methods like block caving is a fraction of this, reducing surficial land

  • (PDF) Surface Mine Design

    Expressed in tons of waste to tons of ore in hard rock open pit operations. For example, a 3 :1 stripping ratio means that mining one cubic meter of ore will require

  • Open-Pit Mining Methods

    Apr 09, 2017· The average blast consists of approximately 65 holes containing 3,200 pounds of explosives distributed in five or six rows. Explosive ratios range from two tons per pound in ore to over three tons per pound in softer waste shots. The overall average is 2.4- tons per pound.

  • Lecture 4: Mining waste

    The ratio between waste rock and ore production is called the stripping ratio. For example, a stripping ratio of 2:1 means that 2 tonnes of waste rock needs to be mined to mine 1 tonne of ore. Generally, an open pit mine has a higher stripping ratio than an

  • Environmental Risks of Mining

    Underground Mining. Underground mining has the potential for tunnel collapses and land subsidence (Betournay, 2011). It involves large-scale movements of waste rock and vegetation, similar to open pit mining. Additionally, like most traditional forms of mining, underground mining can release toxic compounds into the air and water.

  • Technical Document: Acid Mine Drainage Prediction

    underground workings associated with underground mines and subgrade ore piles, also have the potential to generate ARD. As mineralogy and size variables change, the ability to accurately predict the acid potential becomes quite difficult (Brodie, et al. 1991). Waste rock piles and subgrade ore piles, when left onsite, are both

  • Mine wastes management - Mining and Blasting

    For example, stripping ratio of limestone in Himachal Pradesh is almost zero whereas in Rajasthan it is 0.308 (i.e. 300 kg of waste per tonne of limestone mined).11 The overburden ratio for surface mining of metal ores generally ranges from 2:1 to 8:1 depending on local conditions.12 The ratio for solid wastes from underground mining is

  • What is the maximum stripping ratio of open pit Diamond

    Aug 29, 2016· A low grade ore body cannot support a high stripping ratio. The cost is purely driven by the cost of the mining fleet (capital and operating costs) to move the waste ore.

  • What is the maximum stripping ratio of open pit Diamond

    Aug 29, 2016· The stripping ratio is chosen based on economics. A high grade orebody can support a high stripping ratio. A low grade ore body cannot support a high stripping ratio. The cost is purely driven by

  • Underground Mining Methods and Equipment

    employed when the depth of the deposit and/or the waste to ore ratio (stripping ratio) are too great to commence a surface operation. Once the economic feasibility has been verified, the most appropriate mining methods must be selected according to the natural/geological conditions and spatial/geometric characteristics of mineral deposits.

  • Stope mining Britannica

    Other articles where Stope is discussed: mining: Underground mining: of extracting ore are called stopes or rooms. There are two steps involved in stoping. The first is developmentthat is, preparing the ore blocks for miningand the second is production, or stoping, itself. Ore development is generally much more expensive on a per-ton basis than stoping, so that every effort

  • Argyle Diamond Mine, Kimberley - Mining Technology

    At the end of 2019, the probable ore reserves were 5.1Mt at a grade of 1.9ct/t as compared to 11Mt at a grade of 2.2ct/t in 2018. Mine development processes. Development of Argyle was a two-stage process. Alluvial diamond mining took place between 1983 and 1985, when the

  • ore dilution and ore recovery - SlideShare

    For the assumed scale, the proportion of positive values is the proportion of the 32 m length between control points that is represented by waste protruding into ore, and gives a length of 14.1 m.

  • Stripping Ratios: What are They and Why are They Important

    Calculating stripping ratios At their most basic, strip ratios can be calculated by dividing overburden thickness by ore thickness. For example, an overburden thickness of 100 meters and an ore

  • Underground Ramp Design Parameters - QueensMineDesignWiki

    A ramp that provides access to the mine from surface and is used to transport ore using haul trucks. In general these are used in more shallow underground mines as an alternative to shafts, however recently they have been widely used in high volume, moderate depth mines in Australia (1) .

  • Environmental Aspects of Uranium Mining: WNA - World

    At Ranger mine, the development of the first orebody involved a waste to ore ratio of slightly over 2:1. However, uranium minerals are always associated with more radioactive elements such as radium and radon in the ore which arise from the radioactive decay of uranium over hundreds of millions of years.

  • Stripping ratio - Wikipedia

    It is a number or ratio that express how much waste is mined per unit of ore. The units of a stripping ratio can vary between mine types. For example, in coal mining the stripping ratio is commonly referred to as volume/weight. Whereas in metal mining, stripping ratio is unitless and is expressed as weight/weight.

  • The Stoping Method Mineral Production Activities

    Shrinkage stoping is a specialised adaption of open stoping methods in which broken ore is left in a stope, supporting the excavation and creating a bed on which men and machines can operate until the entire block has been drilled and blasted, after which the ore

  • Determining Stripping Ratio - Basic Mining Techniques

    Apr 04, 2016· The maximum allowable Stripping Ratio (SR max) defines break even stripping ratio (BESR).This represents the highest possible units of waste that can be handled. If the SR exceeds the BESR then the operation will be uneconomical as the income generated by the ore is insufficient to offset the costs incurred in mining.

  • Block caving - Canadian Mining JournalCanadian Mining Journal

    Dec 01, 2018· As open pits get deeper, their ratios of waste rock to ore often get higher and the waste must be placed in ever-increasing surface storage areas. The amount of waste rock generated from underground methods like block caving is a fraction of this, reducing surficial land impacts, which is a key permitting advantage.

  • How to profit from low-grade gold mines - MINING.COM

    Dec 23, 2018· The mine plan entails a very low strip ratio (0.76:1), which means every there is very little waste ore to help keep costs low and gold production high. At full build-out AGB expects to produce

  • PorgeraJV - Our Operation page - Porgera Gold Mine Papua

    The Underground Mine The Porgera Underground Mine is a modern, trackless mine, producing approximately 1.4 million tonnes of ore per year from three primary production areas: North Zone, East Zone and AHD. The underground (UG) operation mines the lodes at depth currently up 330 meter beneath the current pit floor.

  • Surface mining planning and design of open pit mining

    Jan 09, 2016· vii) Stripping Ratio The ratio is most commonly expressed as: Strip Ratio (SR) is the mass of waste to be mined to obtain one unit mass of ore. Waste (tons) SR = ----- Ore (tons) For example, a 3:1 stripping ratio means that mining one cubic meter of ore will require mining three cubic meters of waste rock.

  • LAND DEGRADATION DUE TO MINING AND ITS REMEDIAL

    waste as underground mines [1]. II. LAND DEGRADATION The ratio of overburden excavated to the amount of mineral removed is called the stripping ratio. For example a stripping ratio of 4:1 means that 4 tonnes of waste rock are removed to extract one tonne of ore. Lower the ratio, the more productive the mine. Stripping ratio varies with

  • Green Mining

    About 73% of extracted rock goes to waste. Meanwhile, underground mining wastes only 7% of the extracted rock but is more expensive (Hartmann and Mutmansky, 2002). In situ mining (see mining solution page) can be more environmentally friendly than underground mining and is cheaper than many mining methods (Ulmer-Scholle, 2008).

  • Tailingsfo Backfill of Tailings to Underground Workings

    Tailings can be stored below ground in previous worked out voids. The tailings are generally mixed with a binder, usually cement, and then pumped underground to fill voids and help support an underground mine. For example a room and pillar mining operation that uses backfill will be able to extract the insitu pillars containing ore.

  • An approach towards ascertaining open-pit to

    Overall Stripping Ratio (OSR) is the proportion of the whole volume of overburden in the OP to the total reserves of the mineral. In other words, according to relation 1, the ratio of the total volume of waste to the ore volume is defined as OSR (Hartman, 1992). volumeof oreremovedtoacertaindepth volumeof wasteremovedtoacertaindepth OSR = (1)

  • Mine wastes management - Mining and Blasting

    For example, stripping ratio of limestone in Himachal Pradesh is almost zero whereas in Rajasthan it is 0.308 (i.e. 300 kg of waste per tonne of limestone mined).11 The overburden ratio for surface mining of metal ores generally ranges from 2:1 to 8:1 depending on local conditions.12 The ratio for solid wastes from underground mining is

  • Digging deeper: Mining methods explained Anglo American

    2. Underground mining. Underground mining is used to extract ore from below the surface of the earth safely, economically and with as little waste as possible. The entry from the surface to an underground mine may be through a horizontal or vertical tunnel, known as an adit, shaft or decline. Underground mining is practical when:

  • (PDF) Stripping Ratios, Pit Limits & Cutoff Grade

    For open pit mining the costs are $0.40/ton ore and a stripping cost of $0.50/ton of waste. SR = (3.00 -0.40)/0.50 = 5.2 tons of waste/ ton of ore i.e. while the stripping ratio is less than 5.2 it is most economical to mine the deposit by open pit. With mining of bench 8, another 5,000 ft 2 of ore (A 6) is removed.

  • An approach towards ascertaining open-pit to underground

    Overall Stripping Ratio (OSR) is the proportion of the whole volume of overburden in the OP to the total reserves of the mineral. In other words, according to relation 1, the ratio of the total volume of waste to the ore volume is defined as OSR (Hartman, 1992). volumeof oreremovedtoacertaindepth volumeof wasteremovedtoacertaindepth OSR = (1)

  • Underground Mining Transportation Systems

    Skips are shaft conveyors for hoisting ore/coal or waste from the underground. The most significant feature is the method by which ore/coal is discharg ed from the skip. Skips now in use are almost always the bottom-dump design. Skip loading is often automated in conjunction with automated slumping and automated ore/coal hoisting systems.

  • Ore Pass - Mining Fundamentals

    May 24, 2014· Ore passes need to be designed to cut across ground levels and sub levels, in order to provide easy access to underground minerals. The intervals between ore passes should not exceed 500ft, or 150m. Ore pass inclination should be maintained between 45° and 90°, while ore pass length should be in the range of 10m to 300m. References

  • Extraction of Resources Geology - Lumen Learning

    Waste. Ore mills generate large amounts of waste, called tailings. For example, 99 tons of waste are generated per ton of copper, with even higher ratios in gold mining. These tailings can be toxic. Tailings, which are usually produced as a slurry, are most commonly dumped into

  • DUX dump truck makes its way to Pure Gold Minings Madsen

    This underground four-wheel drive truck is well suited for hauling ore, waste and backfill on level and steep grades, according to DUX. It also has the highest power to weight ratio in its class the company said, adding that it permits efficient chute, side and end loading in narrow drifts with low headings.


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